Abbey National Santander Demonstrates The Uphill Battle In Suing Your Employer

The uphill battle and intense stress in suing your employer is demonstrated by the high-profile Chagger v Abbey National plc & Hopkins (2006) legal case in the UK, where the Employment Tribunal found race discrimination and subsequently ordered Santander Abbey National to pay the record breaking 2.8 million compensation award. Abbey National Santander Group (the Spanish-owned UK high street bank which will soon be re-branded as Santander share price, and is part of the massive Banco Santander Group) terminated Balbinder Chagger’s employment in 2006, asserting redundancy as the reason. Mr Chagger believed that the real reason behind his dismissal was race discrimination. Santander Abbey National Group employed Mr Chagger (of Indian origin) as a Trading Risk Controller. He was paid about 100,000 per annum and he reported into Nigel Hopkins.

An employee who has suffered discrimination at work could decide to challenge his employer. The challenge may be initiated in the form of a formal grievance. The employee raises the grievance formally with the employer. The employer is responsible for hearing the grievance and deciding its outcome. The employer is, thus, given the opportunity to deal with the employment dispute and to bring it to a satisfactory end. The Employment Tribunal that heard the Abbey Santander price case found that Mr Chagger had attempted to resolve the issues around his dismissal directly with Abbey National and Mr Hopkins, via the company’s own complaints and grievance procedures. The Employment Tribunal also found, however, that Mr Chagger’s issues were simply dismissed out of hand.

If the employee remains dissatisfied with the employer’s handling of the grievance, then he must initiate legal action in order to persevere with his challenge. Mr Chagger, being dissatisfied with the outcome of his grievances, eventually initiated legal proceedings against both Abbey National Santander and Mr Hopkins on the grounds of race discrimination and unfair dismissal, thus, escalating the dispute to the attention of the Employment Tribunal.

An employer (especially a large and powerful organisation such as a major bank) is likely to be a formidable opponent for most employees, possessing vastly superior levels of financial resources, experience of dealing with disputes, legal expertise and plenty time to devote to the challenge.

In stark contrast, the employee will be relatively poor in financial resources, experience and legal expertise, will be hindered by personal circumstances and commitments, and have to make time to devote to the challenge while he also goes about discharging his obligation of mitigating his loss stemming from the discrimination he has suffered. He may also be further hindered by the low economic value of his challenge (the rewards less the costs), and be discouraged by the prospect of being shunned by prospective employers for having brought a legal action against an employer (whether he wins or loses).

The employer may exercise its superiority ruthlessly, without any remorse, in its attempts to coerce the employee into giving up his challenge for as little as possible. To persevere with legal action against such a formidable opponent requires the employee to possess an amazing level of resolve and lots of disposable cash.

Even though the employer might be holding significant advantages and be ruthless, a genuine challenge supported by appropriate evidence has the possibility to be successful, as shown by Mr Chagger who satisfied the Employment Tribunal that Mr Hopkins and Santander Abbey National had unlawfully discriminated against him on the grounds of race in his dismissal. In order to remedy the wrongs of race discrimination and unfair dismissal that Abbey Santander had committed, the Employment Tribunal ordered it to reinstate Mr Chagger. However, Santander Abbey refused to comply with the Employment Tribunal’s reinstatement order.

Despite Mr Chagger’s challenge being genuine and successful, his experience was that other prospective employers shunned him for having brought a legal action against an employer. This, along with Santander Abbey National’s refusal and failure to comply with the Employment Tribunal’s reinstatement order, subsequently led to the record breaking 2.8 million compensation award.

Even if the employee’s legal challenge is successful, the employer may appeal against the Tribunal’s decision and, thus, continue to prolong the employee’s challenge and to erode its economic value through additional legal costs. In 2008, Santander Abbey National and Mr Hopkins continued the legal case by appealing against the Employment Tribunal’s finding of racial discrimination and 2.8 million compensation award. The Employment Appeal Tribunal (EAT) that heard the appeals upheld the original Employment Tribunal’s finding that Abbey Santander and Mr Hopkins had racially discriminated against Mr Chagger in his dismissal. However, the EAT overturned the Employment Tribunal’s 2.8 million compensation award and sent it back to the original Employment Tribunal for reconsideration.

Even where the issue of the wrong committed has been closed off, the employer may continue to be ruthless in its handling of the issue of remedy/compensation. The Chagger v Abbey National plc & Hopkins case did not end at the EAT stage. This year, 2009, the case was appealed to the Court of Appeal (the second highest court in the UK). The Court of Appeal’s List of Hearings showed that the appeal was listed for hearing on 7 and 8 July 2009. The Court’s judgement and records of the hearing were not available at the time of writing this article. The King’s Walk Bench set of barristers’ chambers, who represented Santander Abbey and Mr Hopkins, had reported that the Court of Appeal hearing was only about compensation (not racial discrimination also). That would suggest that the wrong of racial discrimination committed by Abbey Santander and Mr Hopkins has been finalised by the EAT (which upheld the original Employment Tribunal’s decision that Santander Abbey National and Mr Hopkins had racially discriminated against Mr Chagger in his dismissal), and that Mr Chagger has appealed against the EAT’s decision to send back the 2.8 million compensation award to the Employment Tribunal stage for reconsideration.

As can be seen, winning a discrimination case against a powerful employer is far from easy: it is highly risky and intensely stressful, possibly spanning across many years. The employee should try to have regard for the economic value of his challenge and base his decisions with reference to it, because if the challenge is purely based on principles (no matter how admirable they may be) or spite, then he should prepare to lose lots of money.

Get Wii Points; Don’t Be Scammed

With the Nintendo Wii becoming as popular as it is since its release a couple years ago it is no wonder than so many people are interested in Wii Points. I’ve written previously about how to get Wii Points and have covered quite a few topics about it. However, along with all this attention comes with it a great deal of scams and even illegal ways that offer unbelievable results for little to no money. This article is about how to determine which offers are real and which should be ignored (and in some cases reported).

When searching how to get wii points you’ll undoubtedly come across several ways in order to obtain them. There’s the standard method of simply going to the electronics department a retail outlet and purchasing the Wii Points card for roughly twenty dollars. It works out to be one Wii Points per dollar. This isnt all that bad really. However, you’ll also find other ways to get Wii Points. Some of these including signing up for certain offers in exchange for money or, in this case, Wii Points. This method can be useful and it does work. The only thing you need to watch for is spyware from the sites that tend to promote this way. Also, when signing up for various promotions that often are either free for a certain period of time or cost only a few dollars for the first month, its important to remember to cancel your account/subscription in order to avoid any unnecessary costs charged to your account. If that were to happen getting the Wii Points using this method would just become counterproductive.

Another legal and potentially cheaper way to get Wii Points would be to take advantage of the sites out there that offer unlimited Wii Points for subscribing to their system. If you plan on spending Wii Points often and downloading a lot of games through the Wii Virtual Console then this would be pretty good. Essentially, you pay these sites a sum of money per month which adds up to be cheaper in the long run if you download a lot of games and whatnot. These systems often give you the ability to use your Wii for other things such as downloading movies to your Wii along with music.

When taking advantage of the above method its important to make sure you read the fine print and make an effort to ensure that the site you are dealing with is legitimate. Good ways to make sure the site is on the level would be a privacy statement and terms of use or the like. Read them carefully and make sure that they will keep your information private and that the system they are offering is completely legal. Getting Wii Points is one thing but getting them via stealing or dishonesty is not only immoral but, obviously, illegal and should not be tolerated.

Some sites that offer unlimited downloads for the Nintendo Wii may appear like the real deal at first glance but offer something that if Nintendo were aware of it would be shut down before you can say Super Mario Bros.. They utilized traditional methods like spreading viruses, or collecting personal information such as credit card info and keeping it for themselves.

Finally, when searching for Wii Points or sometimes for Nintendo Wiis make sure not to fall for the deals that offer unlimited Wii Points for free. Except by the methods listed above or if they make sure to show you its legitimate. There are some people out there who hack the console in order to trick it into thinking it is filled with unlimited Wii Points. So be careful not to be duped by get your Wii Points the legal way and enjoy all they have to offer.

Family Law Solicitors Wirral – Important Legal Services In The Area

Family law solicitors are one of the most needed legal service providers in any area as they provide legal services in family disputes. Family law solicitors Wirral are highly expert at their profession and they are accredited from the great legal institutes and regulatory authorities of the country. These family law solicitors Wirral are extensively trained and skilled professional who can provide you very effective legal support in any sort of litigation related to family rules and laws.

Family laws in United Kingdom are based on two important factors; one is statute while the other factor is precedents of the cases and verdicts. It is very complicated to provide legal support in family courts due to this mixture of precedents and statutes. Only expert family law solicitors Wirral can provide the best quality and result oriented relief from the courts to its clients because they are highly experienced with such precedents and have deep knowledge of legal statutes.

Family law solicitors Wirral provide many services pertaining to family litigations among such litigations following few important categories are described in detail.

Divorce & Separation

Divorce and separation is a major part of legal services provided by family law solicitors Wirral. This sections deals with different types of legal issues involved in divorce and separation. Family law solicitors Wirral are highly experienced provider of legal support in different types of conditions to its clients. They handle all issues pertaining to financial matters, child issues, and personal issue between two partners.

Children Matters

Children matters are another major section of family litigation where family law solicitors Wirral can provide you the word class services to safeguard the future of children through their due rights. Family law solicitors Wirral can also provide legal support to children in case of any custody or other such types of issues pertaining family laws and other minor enactments.

Civil Partnerships

Civil partnership litigation also falls in the category of family law. This is a newer type of litigation that involves homosexuality related cases and subsequently financial and property issues. Family law solicitors Wirral can provide you good legal support in these kinds of litigations.

Financial Settlements

Financial settlements are very important part of family litigations. Financial issues always dominate all types of legal issues and cases. The financial settlements arise in different conditions like They can be due to family property, or they can be due to some business deals or other such types of conditions when a family solicitor is needed to get the issues settled in accordance with the laws of the land. Everyone is badly affected by financial matters; therefore, it is very important that a proper legal support should be gotten when financial issues are involved in the litigations.

Other Miscellaneous Legal Issues

Cohabitation matters and prenuptial agreements are few other very important legal matters that need very special legal support to get settled. Family law solicitors Wirral are highly expert in such legal matters. They support their client very effectively to get their due rights in all legal matters that are secured under the rules and laws.

Injury Law Palm Beach Personal Injury Lawyers The Services They Offer

Struck badly by fate, you might find yourself suffering from an injury caused by someones negligence on the road or maybe even a slip & fall due to negligence on the part of a property owner. Perhaps, the incident created a great impact in your life especially if the damage caused was severe. In some instances, it could be a life changing event. On this case, you shouldnt second guess on hiring the services of Personal Injury Lawyers. If you need legal advice and professional assistance regarding the injuries that you have suffered, then hiring Personal Injury Lawyers are a no-brainer. With their extensive experience and knowledge, they can make sure that youre on the right path.

First things first, Personal Injury Lawyers are professional, legal representatives who specialize in injury related cases. Aside from making sure that you get the right treatment and claims that you deserve, they also make sure that you are not being deprived of your rights. Without the assistance of Personal Injury Lawyers, problems may arise on proving that you really have been hurt, be it on a physical, emotional or financial basis. And the good news is that most Personal Injury Lawyers offer their services under a no-fee contingency plan. Through this plan, you are not required to pay the necessary fees unless your lawyer has won the case.

You should be assigned a personal attorney, case manager and legal assistant. A team who will work closely with you from the very first day until the case is finally resolved. You need a lawyer who will aggressively represent you. You need an injury law firm who will call you back in a timely manner. An injury law firm who fully explains every step of the legal and medical process. It’s a huge plus when your Personal Injury Lawyer is compassionate and understands your complicated situation.

For more information, please contact Brian D. Guralnick at Injury Law Offices of Brian D Guralnick, PA – Demand More at 561-616-9977, email or visit for details on a FREE CONSULTATION regarding your case. Law Offices of Brian D Guralnick:

2419 S. Dixie Highway,

West Palm Beach,

FL 33401,

Ph no: 561-616-9977

Legal Bud Review

Rasta weed is a good legal bud to buy. This is so because it is of high quality. It is very cheap with its prices starting from $25 to $100. The price is based on the gram of the legal bud you decide to purchase. You can find different grams of rasta weed ranging from 5g to 30g. Rasta weed is the strongest legal bud among the rest of other ones.

Rasta weed is a fine combination of herbs which can be used for smoking. It produces an euphoric feeling of well-being and elation when it is used. It can remain active for as long as 2 hours. This legal bud was formulated after months of testing to product one of the best herbal legal bud available to man.

It is free from nicotine. Nicotine is an element which damages the heart with time. Most of the cigarettes you see in the world today contain nicotine. Rasta weed does not contain any nicotine. It is also legal in virtually all the countries of the world. There is no law which restricts the use of rasta weed.

The effect from the use of rasta weed is powerful, thus it does work. The online store where you can get rasta weed is at favorite store. You can expect to get the best form of legal bud over there. Rasta weed is made using up to 5 natural herbs. They are namely leonotis leonurus (it is a type of cannabis), Artemisia absinthium, artenisia verlotiorum. They are all grown in an organic manner in New Zealand with no chemical fertilizers or pesticides.

A DUI Lawyer Can Help You Through The Legal Process

Driving drunk, buzzed or blitzed is more than just a dangerous and stupid decision; it can also result in the loss of time and money, and require the services of a DUI lawyer. And because the consequence of this offense are so severe, it’s important to understand all of the legal steps that are taken to arrive at a conviction, starting with how an impaired driver ends up in the legal system to start with. Drivers who are pulled over for driving while impaired generally are pulled over by the police for another traffic offense such as weaving, speeding, erratic driving or failing to yield. Or they are involved in or the cause of an automobile accident.

Once a police officer has probable cause to pull a driver over, they can make an assessment based on the appearance of the driver to do a field sobriety test. This assessment can include the smell of alcohol on the driver, blood shot eyes, slurred speech and other indicators that the driver is driving impaired. At this point an officer has enough probable cause to warrant a field sobriety test. A driver who fails this field sobriety test or refuses to take the test will automatically, under Arizona law, lose their driver’s license for a period of ninety days.

The cost for a DUI can be extensive. In Arizona, jail time for a conviction is mandatory and repeat offenders may be sentenced to a longer jail sentence with each offense. In addition to jail time, losing a driver’s license and mandatory monetary fines, a conviction for a DUI offense also means mandatory alcohol education classes, possible vehicle confiscation and possible court ordered drug and alcohol counseling.

If you are arrested for this crime, hiring a DUI lawyer may be your only hope of either being found innocent of the charges or receiving a lighter sentence. And while jail time is mandatory upon conviction and an area your attorney won’t be able to influence, other aspects of your sentence do have some wiggle worm your attorney can work with. Things such as monetary fines, the length of time your license is suspended for, the possibility of getting a hardship license to drive to and from work, for example, are all areas of the punishment aspect that an attorney can help with and work to minimize.

If you are arrested for driving under the influence of alcohol, the most important first step you need to take is to contact a DUI lawyer immediately in order to protect your future civil and legal rights before its to late.

A DUI lawyer in Mesa, AZ offers a whole variety of different services to the accused and convicted. They want to help you, so learn more here:

Illegal Acts A Landlord May Commit That Tenants Can Bring To Court

A landlord rents out dwelling places such as houses and apartments. Some properties they rent out are the landlord’s property himself. However, some are renting out properties of other people; for which they are then the administrator of the property.

Whichever the case maybe, the landlord has the responsibility of ensuring the peaceful possession of leased property by the tenant.

Some property owners or administrators commit illegal acts whether intentionally or unintentionally, there may be remedies available including arbitration but if the problem cannot be remedied, there are cases where a tenant can bring the matter to the legal fold.

To avoid this, landlords and tenants law designed provisions for lease agreements that will assure legal protection for both parties that will help avoid misunderstanding that may end up in chaotic relationships. Legal remedy may be sought but understanding the rights of each party may not even reach that far.

Executing lease contracts between the parties may also help ensure definite responsibilities of the landlord and the tenant. Signing the least contract makes the parties commit to the terms and conditions of their agreement.

Violations of any portion of the contract may be brought to court for rectification if all means to fix the problem did not work.

Here are some common illegal actions property owners or administrator commit that violate tenants’ rights such as lockouts, utility shutoffs and taking the tenants property. These illegal actions of a landlord may be brought before the court for legal relief.


Landlords violate tenants’ peaceful possession of the leased property by changing locks or adding locks while the tenant is away. This will avoid tenants from entering the leased property that may cause extreme prejudice to the tenant.

Even in cases of non-payment of rent, lockout is illegal and can be brought to court for necessary remedy.

The court may order payment of damages on a daily basis, until the tenant has taken full possession of his rented unit.

On the other hand, tenants need to pay their rent on time. This is their responsibility and proper care of the property is another responsibility they should commit to.

Utility shutoffs

Especially in cases of retaliation against the tenant for certain misunderstandings, landlords or any of his staff may violate tenant’s rights by non-payment of utilities that will surely cause undue discomfort to the tenant.

If the shutoff is intentional and cannot be remedied by contacting the utility company, then the tenant may come to court for legal actions.

Again, the tenant is advised to workout any misunderstanding in the most peaceful manner. This will avoid undue discomfort for both parties.

Taking tenant’s property

In cases of abandonment, landlords may take possession of tenants’ property for safekeeping. This may also be the means for the landlord to continue with its business of renting out its property.

However, if the landlord claims possession of tenant’s property in order to annoy or retaliate against the tenant for complaining against him.

The court may then provide sanction that will cost the offending party at least one thousand dollars for everyday of illegal possession of tenant’s property; this will include attorney’s fees and other incidental expenses caused by his illegal acts.

Avoiding misunderstanding between the tenant and landlord will enable both parties to continue with their normal activities, the rental agreement may bind them and ensure both parties know their responsibilities.

Commit faithfully to the responsibilities provided you by the agreement, this will ensure the other party may be able to do the same.

Fear conviction for robbery in California You need the services of a robbery criminal defense atto

Robbery is a crime that all civilizations at all times have considered a punishable one. This crime has always invited a harsh penalty from those who have been in a position to judge and enforce such a punishment. Present day California is no different and anyone proved guilty of robbery can be punished severely based on the charges and nature of crime. If you or your loved one is going to be arrested for robbery, hire a criminal defense attorneyimmediately to build a strong robbery defense.

Classification of robbery crimes in California law/b>

The California law defines robbery as someone taking the property of another by the use of force and/or instilling fear. This definition is very common and most jurisdictions give more or less similar ones for robbery. However, the law in California categorizes different types of robbery offences based on the contexts in which these occurred. Corresponding to less and more severe robbery crimes, the law specifies levels or degrees. There are first degree robbery offences and second degree offences.

First degree robbery – The kinds of robberies that come under the purview of first degree in California include one that occurs in a home or any residential accommodation, one that occurs in a taxi or any other type of transportation for hire, and one that occurs inside an ATM machine and carjacking.

Second degree robbery – All other instances of robberies, i.e. those that occur in other locations and other situations than the ones mentioned above are said to be a second degree robbery.

Potential penalties for robbery crimes in California

The reason behind specific contexts mentioned as first degree robbery offences is to punish the offenders more severely in these cases. For a first degree robbery, an offender can face a sentence of up to 9 years in state prison, while someone convicted of second degree robbery does not face more than 5 years in prison.

Apart from the sentence for robbery alone, if any other crime occurs at the same time, it can be extended. For example, if it is proved that a weapon was used during robbery; 20 years could be added to the defendant’s sentence.

How an experienced California lawyer helps in robbery defense

An experienced criminal defense attorney in California helps you protect your legal rights. So, if it is likely that you will be investigated, arrested, charged or taken to trial for a robbery crime, you need the services of an experienced lawyer to remind you of your rights and more importantly, build a strong defense.

How To Prepare For Your Meeting With A Probate Attorney

Are you getting ready to meet with an Orlando probate attorney for the first time? This first meeting can seem rather intimidating. After all, you’re discussing the property division of a deceased individual. It’s not light conservation by any means. However, if you are the executor of a will, meeting with a probate attorney is the best way to get the process moving forward so family members can gain access to their inheritance and you can fulfill your duty.


Prior to meeting with the attorney, you may be asked to fill out a questionnaire. This will go over your relationship to the deceased and he or she may ask you questions about your legal authority to oversee the division of property. If you’re required to fill out a questionnaire, take your time and make sure you answer all the questions to the best of your ability.


When you meet with the probate attorney, you will need to bring certain documents with you to the meeting. These documents should be listed on the questionnaire or the attorney’s staff may verbally tell you which documents the attorney will need to see. Requested documentation usually includes copies of the following information:

Trusts or wills of the deceased
Deeds to all real property
Life insurance policies
Gift tax returns, if applicable
Trust agreements between husbands and wives if the spouse is the beneficiary
Public benefit statements for government programs like Medicaid or Social Security

Prepare Your Own Questions

If you’ve never been part of the probate process, you are certain to have many questions. When you meet with the probate lawyer for the first time, it is in essence an interview. You’re trying to gauge just how well this individual will be able to represent the interests of the estate you’re in charge of allocating to the deceased dependents based on his or her final wishes. The following examples are questions that you may want to ask of the attorney you are meeting with:

How many cases similar to yours has the attorney handled? Not all probate cases are the same. If the estate is rather large or you expect resistance from certain individuals unhappy with the way the inheritance was divided, you’ll want to make sure your attorney has the expertise to handle this situation.

Are there any foreseeable problems with your probate case? Attorneys are not psychic. However, legal professionals with the right amount of experience should be able to identify potential problems from the documents you show them and the way you answer their questions.

Will the attorney you’re meeting with be the presiding attorney over the case or will it be handed to another legal professional in the office? If another attorney will be handling the majority of the case, make sure you take the time to meet him or her to ensure that you feel comfortable with his or her background and ability to handle the case.

How long do you expect the case to take? Some probate cases are over and done with rather quickly, while others involve a lengthy process. Again, attorneys are not psychic, but they should be able to estimate a timeline based on the information you provide.

How does the attorney get paid for his or her services? As the executor of the will, you should not be expected to pay out of pocket for these services. Probate attorneys usually take a percentage from the estate. Make sure you are comfortable with the percentage you are quoted.

These are just a few examples of the kinds of questions you’ll want to prepare ahead of time before you meet with the Orlando probate attorney of your choice.